Saturday, August 2, 2008

Geologic, Biologic Timeline

14.5 GA "Methuselah star", oldest known star with a well-determined age ±0.8 billion years
13.772 GA (±59 million years) estimated the age of the universe per NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe project's nine-year data release in 2012
4.6 - 3.8 MA formation of Earth - Hadean geologic eon (aka, Precambrian)
4.5 GA Earth collides with Thea and remnants form Moon
4.4 GA age of meteorites
4.1 GA Earth cools forming a solid crust
3.8 GA heavy meteor bombardment possibly eliminated any early life or, may have brought life to Earth
3.8 GA Earth's oldest rocks
3.6 GA last universal common ancestor (LUCA), is the hypothetical latest living organism from which all organisms now living on Earth descend
3.5 BAoldest non-marine mountain range, Barberton Greenstone Belt in eastern Africa
3 GA photosynthesis. Moon so close to Earth tides are 1000 feet
1.3 GA - 750 MA supercontinent Rodinia
1.2 GA sexual reproduction
1 GA multicell creatures
850 - 630 MA Cryogenian Period (incl. "snowball Earth")
600 - 540 MA Pannotia supercontinent
545 MA beginning of common era, Phanerozoic eon.
542 - 500 MA Paleozoic - Cambrian (fossilized multicellular organisms, no land plants)
530 MA first known footsteps on land left by lobster-like creatures
500 MA Fish
500 - 200 MA Gondwana supercontinent
488 MA Cambrian-Ordovician extinction event
440 MA Ordovician - Silurian extinction event
367 MA Devonian-Carboniferous extinction event
359 MA Paleozoic-Carboniferous - Mississippian
350 - 300 MA Appalachians and Alleghenies formed
320 MA amniotes, first terrestrial vertibrates, evolved from amphibians
324 MA reptilian ancestors of reptiles
318 MA Paleozoic - Carboniferous - Pennsylvanian
300 MA Reptiles
299 MA Paleozoic - Permian, Pangaea supercontinent
251 MA Permian - Triassic (Great Dying extinction event that occurred between Permian and Triassic)
215 MA earliest turtles
200 MA Triassic - Jurassic extinction event eliminates large amphibians and many types of dinosaurs
199 MA Mesozoic - Jurassic (first true mammals)
175 - 60 MA Pangaea breaks into Gondwana and Laurasia, Andes begin to form
167 MA Gondwana breaks into Africa, Antartica, Australia and India
150 MA monotreme (egg laying) mammals diverge from placentals and marsupials
145 MA Mesozoic - Cretaceous. Andes take current form.
125 MA first marsupial
100 - 85 MA placental mammals
100 - 65 MA Rocky Mountains formed
93 - 70 MA Late Cretacious, dinosaur extinction
65.5 MA K-T Boundary (between Cretaceous and Cenozoic) and mass extinction event (death of the dinosaurs) often associated with the Yucatan Meteor impact
63 MA Cenozoic - Paleocene - wet-nosed primates
58 MA dry-nosed primates
40 MA primates outside of Africa and Asia go extinct
35 MA Himalayas form
23 - 5.3 MA Cenozoic - Miocene Epoch
20 MA bovines
6.5 MA human line diverges from Chimpanzee
5 MA Adirondacks lifted (the rocks of the Adirondacks are Paleozoic in origin)
2.5 MA - 10,000 BC Paleolithic era. Mankind's old stone age. Human ancestors use stone tools
1.8 MA - 11 KA Pleistocene recent period of glaciation, current continents in place at beginning
1.0 MA human ancestors walk upright and may have used fire for cooking
200 KA modern humans
140 KA Mitochondrial Eve
110 - 11 KA Würm glaciation period ("ice age")
70 KA Human near extinction (population bottleneck) due to Toba super-volcano
70 - 50 KA humans migrate from Africa
15 - 10 KA formation of deciduous forests
10,000 BC Neolithic (new stone) age. Humans engage in agriculure
9,000 BC end of Ice Age
7,000 BC domesticated cattle
4004 BC date of creation by Bishop Usher's calculations
4000 BC Bronze Age
2570 BC Pyramids of Giza
1812 BC Abraham
1520 BC Moses adopted by daughter of Pharaoh Hatshepsut
1500 BC earliest Vedic (Hindu) texts
1479 - 1425 BCE reign of Thutmose III, pharaoh of the Exodus
1200 BC latest date from probablility for MCRA, most recent common ancestor (similar to Mitochondrial Eve)
1100 BC Iron Age begins
1040–970 BC King David
600-400 BC production of the written Torah
597-538 BC Jewish Babylonian exile
563-483 BC life of Buddha
2 BC - 33 AD life of Jesus of Nazareth
1800 AD human population reaches 1 billion

MSNBC's Graphic Timeline